What are the Defect Detection Strategies for Bare PCB Board?

By | Date posted: | Last updated: February 14, 2022

PCBs performing a very critical role in electronic Equipments a robust defect detection strategy is the need of the hour to ensure that any costly mistakes are avoided. This is true for both bare PCB boards as well as fully assembled circuit boards. Let us look at both these aspects in some detail.

Defect detection strategies for fabricated PCBs

Essentially, PCB fabrication is a very exact science that leaves very little room for error. One major requirement, therefore, is to verify the electrical continuity of the board.

There are two major ways for bare PCB testing of raw fabricated boards as below:

  • Bed of nails test fixture
  • Flying Probe test system

Bed of nails test

The way this works is that a test fixture is built for the specific PCB design. The fixture contains a number of spring-loaded test pins. In fact, this is where the test gets its name. The PCB is pressed down on the test pins, which in turn check them for electrical conductivity. This test is particularly known for its low testing time.

Flying Probe test

A Flying Probe test originated for bare board testing and involves testing for shorts, opens and the like. The main parameter that is tested is resistance between points. However, these tests have evolved to measure capacitance and inductance as well. In fact, this is what makes them effective for testing not just bare circuit boards but PCB assemblies as well. The many reasons why this test is popularly used for defect detection include:

  • They are cost-effective.
  • They have fewer accessibility issues as opposed to ICT testers.
  • Since the movement of probes is controlled by a software, changes are easy to implement.
  • As compared to ICT testing, they offer improved test coverage.

Defect detection testing also benefits from the first article test. Essentially, this involves the testing the first circuit boards to establish what is known as “gold” units. If the first article tests do not show any defects, the entire production run is considered to have passed the connectivity tests. Another important purpose of the first article is also to set up a process of record for the board production. Once the POR is established and replicated, you can rest assured that each board will function similarly.

For the first article inspection, therefore, it is necessary to look at the following aspects:

  • Measuring and recording all the attributes of the board be it dimensions or resistance. Once these values are verified with the design specifications, you can rest assured that the board is good to go.
  • is also important to check for clarity in documentation.
  • For assembled boards, it is important to check that the parts and material installed, match the laid down specifications.

These steps ensure that any defects are ascertained at the first article stage itself and then you do not proceed to a large run production without sorting these out. If any errors are found, corrective action can be taken. Any changes that may be needed in design can also be identified at this stage.

In case of a bare PCB board, which is relevant or manual as well as automated inspection techniques. Simply put, what automated optical inspection does is to scan the board and then compare its image with that of the first article production board. Any errors are thus easily flagged. In addition, there are also manual inspections by trained technicians to ascertain any errors that may have been missed by the automated systems post the bare board manufacturing.

With so many checks and balances, an experienced Bare Board manufacturer can significantly reduce probability of errors and defects in bare PCBs. The bare boards ready for the next step, which involves mounting components on the board or what is popularly known as PCB Assembly.

Although we are largely talking about PCB Bare Board Manufacturing and ascertaining defect detection strategies for bare boards, it will be prudent to briefly look at some defect detection strategies for PCB Assemblies as well. Some of these include:

  • Visual inspection
  • Automated inspection
  • Flying probe testing
  • In-circuit testing
  • Functional Testing

Importantly, it is also important to ensure that the PCB design is optimized for manufacturability. In the absence of that you can run into a host of issues such as solder defects, Tombstoning. A PCB manufacturer with a proven track record can go a long way in helping you with robust design principles as also adherence to DFM rules and processes.

At Technotronix, we have over 4 decades of experience in fabricating as well as assembling high quality bare PCB boards. We configure PCB bare boards as per your specifications while also offering effective bare PCB testing capabilities. We can manufacture configurations of bare circuit boards based on your custom specification. please explore PCB fabrication services. Also, you can drop an email to sales@technotronix.us or give us a call at 714/630-9200 to solve your queries or to get a quick quote!

RF/Microwave PCB Play the most important Role in High-Speed PCB Design!

By | Date posted: | Last updated: February 14, 2022

What is your knowledge about RF and Microwave circuits? If nothing, then you are at the right place to understand everything about RF and microwave circuits. A few decades ago, no one was familiar with the word RF and microwave circuits because of their complex design in manufacturing these circuits.

The technology was not that advanced, simplifying circuit making, creating complexity in manufacturing RF and microwave PCBs. But in the current era, RF and microwave circuits are becoming a very crucial part of industrialization. RF circuitry is getting crammed into a wide array of commercial products. With RF circuitry, manufacturers are preparing wireless devices for several Industries like defense, medical, and communication applications, making RF circuits a crucial part of businesses. Check out top design guidelines for RF and Microwave PCB Assembly!

Not just RF circuits, but microwave circuitry can capture very high frequency (VHF) and Ultra high frequency (UHF) to the circuit. Now high-speed PCBs are getting RF and microwave technology to enhance the operational quality of the PCB. RF and microwave circuits have surpassed several challenges that the PCB manufacturers were facing previously, and now PCB manufacturing is becoming accessible for preparing RF And Microwave Printed Circuit Boards.

The range of RF Technology varies from 500 MHz to 2 GHz. After 2 GHz, the PCB designs come into the range of Microwave Printed Circuit Boards. So now we can differentiate between RF and microwave circuits, which are digital or analog.

What is an RF PCB?

Generally, PCB industries consider 100 MHz circuit boards as an RF circuit, which is quite understandable. The frequency range of RF circuits is very high, creating ample PCB solutions in manufacturing and operations.

Industries are widely using RF circuit boards to successfully operate their business and find smart solutions after completing the circuit board design.

What is A Microwave PCB?

Microwave PCBs are the most used Printed Circuit Boards whose radio frequencies are above 2 GHz. This means these circuit boards can be operated only on high frequencies. Most communication signals and applications use Microwave or RF circuit boards, and these are the fastest PCB manufacturing technology.

Why Do Industries Need Microwave PCB and RF PCB?

For preparing fastest printed board circuits, manufacturers can commonly use Microwave printed circuit boards and RF circuit boards to transmit fast radio signals. Our boards have many different applications like wireless technologies, smartphones, robotics, security, and sensors. This means RF printed circuit boards are becoming a crucial part of modern industries.

If you think of preparing a fast-printed circuit board that can transmit millions of signals in minimum seconds, then RF circuit boards can help you get the finest solutions. Similarly, Microwave printed circuit boards can hold more frequencies than RF circuits, which means they can handle billions of communication signals in a couple of seconds.

Radio Frequency printed circuit boards are high frequency printed circuit boards that can enhance electronic appliances’ performance and their applications in the industries. With this instant application, these printed circuit boards are commonly used by defense, electronics Industries, smartphone industries, and other top industries that need printed circuit boards for a smooth operation.

RF and Microwave printed circuit boards are crucial to enhance each other’s performance, commonly used in aerospace sectors. Just because of the negligible errors in RF and Microwave printed circuit boards, industries are widely using these circuit boards to get a high-performance aerospace application.

Nowadays, digital signals are crucial in every circuit, and it is creating a fast transmission path for signal transformation. Also, RF PCBs and microwave PCBs can maintain dielectric constant, thermal conductivity, thermal coefficient of dielectric constant, and thermal expansion coefficient.

What are the factors affecting RF PCB & Microwave Printed circuit Boards?

Preparation of Microwave circuit boards and RF circuit boards are still difficult for manufacturers. Due to it, manufacturers face some problems in transmitting the radio signals and also have tight impedance tolerance.

If we talk about old age PCBs, radio and microwave signals are sensitive to noise, and they can respond directly to it. It can affect the quality of printed circuit boards, and also, manufacturers did not manage ample RF and Microwave printed circuit boards to get the perfect shape.

It affected these printed circuit boards’ operational quality and created complexity in transmitting radio signals to the printed circuit boards. Nowadays, industries are using high-speed printed circuit boards to operate several operations in the company. Some of these factors like impedance mismatch, size grounding, arrangement, and Kelvin connection can affect RF’s speed circuit boards.

RF circuit boards are giving multi gigahertz speed to the transmission of signal, and they can absorb energy in the form of heat. The signal transmitting on the circuit boards is fast, which is giving fast operations to the companies. Manufacturers are managing these printed circuit boards by reducing the resistance in cross-section for higher heat loss.


We are the top high-speed PCB manufacture in USA who gives you the fastest transmission speed in Microwave printed circuit boards. With this quality, you can find cost-effective and thermal effective printed circuit boards with ultimate durability.

Several factors can affect the durability of printed circuit boards, like the environment, which needs to be fixed on time. Our experts find smart solutions using the latest technologies available and prepare the best PCB prototype for Microwave printed circuit boards and RF circuit boards. It can enhance the operational qualities of your devices and will enhance the speed of signal transmission.

The experts understand every needs of industries, and prepare the best high-speed PCB design to utilize its speed to the end result. Mixed signal PCBs have complex designs, which have several complications while manufacturing. Our experts use the latest technical tools to prepare every Radio Frequency Printed Circuit Board.

The performance of these PCBs depends on the manufacturing process, which is done smartly by the experienced engineers, and gives it a physical shape efficiently. They find the best option in PCB manufacturing by reducing the impedance of the Microwave Printed Circuit Boards. If you want to manufacture high efficiency RF printed circuit boards, you can find a wide range of PCB manufacturing at Technotronix.

Complete Guide on Copper Balance in Printed circuit Board Fabrication

By | Date posted: | Last updated: April 8, 2022

Printed circuit board fabrication is a tedious task because you have to look at the dynamics and take care of the technicalities while building a PCB. It is important to place all the things at the required place and amount in PCB fabrication. The most important thing that needs to be balanced while the fabrication of PCB is being done is to achieve the required copper balance. This article will tell you about the in and out of copper balance in print circuit board fabrication.

Role of copper balance in PCB Fabrication

Copper is a very important element when it comes to PCB fabrication. Copper is a great conductor of electricity. So, copper in a PCB ensures the effective transfer of energy from one point to another and controlling the excessive amount of heat. There are many benefits of using heavy copper in PCB fabrication. With copper, there are fewer chances of bow and twist in your PCB. Mainly, the copper gives strength to the structure.

Things to be kept in mind PCB copper balance

Area of Copper

The areas where copper is in large quantity should be organized in a grid form. It will help the PCB to get a smooth operation.

Copper Symmetry

Make sure that there is copper symmetry. The symmetry is crucial for the fabrication process, which provides a clear understanding of soldering in the PCB.

Balance the copper

To reduce the Printed Circuit Board’s bow and twist, you can balance the copper and provide it a flat shape. The bow and twist of a PCB can affect the complete shape of the Printed Circuit board.

Balance of PCB stack up

PCB stack-up aims to reduce the risk of deformation while going into the stressed manufacturing of PCB boards. Stack up process provides a flat PCB board that can give a perfect lamination process.

Ways through which copper fabrication is done

  • Imaging:

    It is the basic operation before starting the PCB design. Initially, you have to find a way to create an image layout of the PCB design you will make. You can manually prepare the image or by using Electronic Computer Aid Design (ECAD) software. You can manually prepare the easy designs, but you have to prepare the image using the ECAD software to design complex designs.
  • Etching:
    Etching is the process where copper is added to the substrate of the board. This will clear the extra futile copper layer from the board and give a final finish to the board. Performing etching needs some chemical products to remove the futile copper from the board. Mostly HCl or Iron Chloride to complete the process of etching.
  • Lamination:
    The PCB designs consist of several layers, which need to be fixed properly into the board to complete the Printed Circuit Boards. The lamination process prepares the PCB design to be fixed to the circuit for a long time. It requires an extreme temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit under a pressure of 275 to psi, which is a huge pressure to laminate the PCB. After going through this process, the material then cooled slowly to complete the PCB design.

    Different types of laminating processes are used for laminating the PCB design, giving the perfect shape and circuit combination to the circuit.

  • Machining:
    A PCB milling machine can assist you in making the PCB board easily. With this process, you can remove the excess copper from the sheet of the PCB board. It creates electronic isolation on the board and gives the shape to the circuit. The whole process is non-chemical and allows several PCB assemblers to compile the whole PCB process easily.

    You can also measure the accuracy of the circuit board you have prepared. While performing machining, you can perform every task related to Printed Circuit Boards except the vias and through-hole plating process. You can manage the hardware of this machine directly from the software, which allows you to complete the whole process of PCB milling in easy steps.

  • Plating:
    It is an electrochemical process that helps to deposit a metal on the board. Every through-hole part of the PCB board gets the metal to complete the track of the circuit. You can manage the complete process of plating using the software related to the plating process.

    It improves the board’s thickness and creates an efficient plate for the further operations of the boards. Plating is the final PCB design process, which finalizes the PCB boards to take into the market.

    You will find these methods to complete your copper Printed Circuit Board. After completing the PCB assembling processes, you have to inspect your PCB design using some systems.
    These systems will allow you to test the Printed Circuit Board without wasting much time. You can prepare a group of data that can allow you to find the best ways of preparing the printed circuit boards.

    Different methods are there to deal with the Printed Circuit Boards, which allows you to create the copper PCB in easy steps. Multiple PCB designs depend on the PCB style, where sometimes you need to prepare multilayer PCBs for the system, or sometimes it takes only single-layered to get completed.

PCB designs are complicated when the assembler does not use the efficient ways of PCB manufacturing, and it takes a lot of time from imaging to the physical shape. The PCB fabricators must take care of the vital data to print on the Printed Circuit Board, and this is a common process named Silkscreen Application.

Copper fabrication in PCB give the final touch to the design and make it ready to use printed circuit board in every industry. Industries like aircrafts, defense, and other crucial ones to provide the finest PCB service in California.

These are some of the crucial things a manufacturer leaves on the PCB design they provide to their clients. Copper PCBs have their reputation in the electronics world because it is the metal which allows electricity to flow without any complications.

PCBs’ manufacturing needs several machinery types to complete the tasks in minimal time, making it a complicated process to complete the printed circuit boards with the best designs. Companies can use these boards in multiple operations of the electronics.

At Technotronix, we have over 4 decades of experience in PCB Fabrication. With our experienced PCB manufacturer, you can rest assured that what you will get is an effective production. To get more insights into the PCB fabrication, PCB assembly, PCB design, PCB manufacturing, please explore PCB fabrication services. Also, you can drop an email to sales@technotronix.us or give us a call at 714/630-9200 to solve your queries or to get a quick quote!

Why is Metal Core Printed Circuit Board Widely Used in Led Products?

By | Date posted: | Last updated: May 5, 2021
Metal Core Printed Circuit Board

Print circuit boards have blazed a trail for electronic engineers. Print circuit boards help in building a prototype for the potential design before it comes on the market. Metal print circuit boards are used specifically to make electronic devices since metal is a good electricity conductor. It provides a path for electricity to travel from one component to another. These metal print circuit boards are widely used in LED Products, but what are LED products? For what purposes is it used?

What do we understand by the term LED products?

LED (light-emitting diode) consists of small pixels that emit a bright and clear light. LED is widely used in various products like for light banners that you see on roads, it is used in lights, in making certain parts for automobiles. In short, we have seen a significant transformation in LED past some years. LED is very cost-effective as compared to other conventional products. However, the LEDs can sometimes prove unstable and unreliable; their maximum efficiency cannot be reached if there is no thermal loss. So, to solve this problem in LED products, metal core PCBs are used.

What are Metalcore print circuit boards?

Metalcore PCBs Fr4 was used earlier, but they are used widely because of metal circuit boards’ excellent features. The base material is metal, and the core has the power to redirect the heat that is generated aside from the elements. The metal plate used in it has the power to dissolve the heat. The metal core printed circuit boards are considered a better choice than glass epoxy because of their extraordinary qualities and high conductivity. Since then, MCPCB has been every engineer’s favorite.

The good things about Metal Core Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

Improves the material’s reliability: The MCPCBs play a key role in the elements that heat up overly at times. It helps to divert the heat from one side to another where the heat has vanished, which improves the product’s life, making it much more durable.

Prevents overheating: LEDs tend to get overheated very quickly. If a metal core printed circuit board is used, it solves overheating by transferring the energy from one side to another.

can adapt to a high temperature: unlike the fr4 technology, the metal core PCBs can adapt to products with a high temperature, especially it proves to be very useful for LED products.

Lightweight: In metalcore, PCB’s two types of metals are copper or aluminum. Both of them are lightweight and offer great resistance ability. Being lightweight makes the PCB easier to handle and easy to ship between places.

Recyclable: metals are environment- friendly products. They are non-toxic and can be recycled easily. Metalcore PCBs are used in products that require high vibration abilities.

Reasons why metal core PCBs are the best choice for making LED products

Longer shelf and operating life: since it is a well-known fact that LED products emit a lot of heat. The metal core PCBs transfer heat quickly and prevent overheating. Aluminium PCBs are mostly used in these PCBs; they can operate longer than other metals and longer shelf life.

Increase in LED density: since metal core PCB’s have a high conductive ability, there remains ample space for maximum LEDs, which allows producing sufficient light and achieving high performance.

Which is a better choice: aluminum or copper for metal core PCB?

The choice depends on the product you are making and what suits it. The choice is made about the purpose. There are differences between aluminum and copper PCBs; let us delve into that.

  • Copper PCBs have a better ability for heat transfer and dissipation, while aluminum has a lower ability than copper.
  • Aluminum is lighter in weight than copper, making it the best choice if you want a lightweight LED PCB.
  • Copper is always an expensive option, and aluminum comes at a cheaper rate.
  • Mostly aluminum is used for LED due to its varied abilities. Copper is used in very few cases.

Difference between metal core PCB and FR4 PCBs

Plated through-holes: This feature is specifically found in FR4 PCBs. In metalcore, PCB plating through-holes aren’t available for one-layer print circuit boards. Only surface mounting elements are available for metal core PCBs.

Conductivity: FR-4 offers the only 0.3watt of thermal conductivity, which is very low. The thermal conductivity of MCPCB varies from 1 watt to 4 watts, which is a good amount. Metal is said to be a conductor of electricity. That’s why it has higher conductivity.

Thickness: In terms of thickness, FR-4 offers more thickness since it has many layers. Metalcore PCBs are thinner as compared to FR-4.

Thermal relief: Metal core PCBs have more ability to dissipate the heat. In the FR-4 drilling process and deposition has to be carried out to make it dissipate heat.

Solder Mask: In FR-4, the color of the solder mask is red and green, and it is applied on top and at the bottom. In MCPCB, the solder mask comes in white color and is only applied at the top.

Places where metal core PCBs are used

Metal Core PCBs are used in making various products, and it has become every electronic engineer’s favorite. It is widely used in making LED products.

  • It is used in street lights. Since LEDs are used in street lighting, the MCPCB’s allow larger LED’s, which allows in emitting more light.
  • It is also used in automobiles for stereo sets, radios.
  • Generally, it is used in lighting applications since most of them have LEDs in them. Metal Core PCBs are most compatible with LEDs.
  • Things that have high power like high voltage regulators, power supplies. In all these things, MCPCB is used.

By reading the properties of metalcore print circuit boards and the advantage, you must have understood why these are used widely in LED products. However, keep in mind which metal you want to use in your PCB for your design. We think aluminum will be the best option to choose! The metal core PCBs have surely outshined the traditional FR4, and that’s why it is so popular in the market.

At Technotronix, we combine state-of-the-art technology with our advanced engineering to offer Metal Core Printed Circuit Board with highest quality. With over four decades of experience in delivering high quality, on-time, price-competitive products, you can bank on us for your MCPCB requirements. he fact that we have over 4 decades of experience in manufacturing state-of-the-art metal core PCBs and have a huge body of industry knowledge makes us a go-to PCB partner.

To get more insights into the PCB fabrication and PCB assembly services, please explore our PCB fabrication services. Also, you can drop an email to sales@technotronix.us or give us a call at 714/630-9200 to solve your queries or to get a quick PCB fabrication quote.