What is BGA Reballing? Why does Ball Grid Array require Reballing?

By | Date posted: | Last updated: June 7, 2022
BGA Reballing

What is BGA Reballing?

BGA Reballing refers to changing every soldered ball on a grid array circuit. Essentially, a ball grid array circuit is established to make an accurate connection between the PCB & the chip. Very often, it will involve extracting old solder balls and replacing them with new ones.

To offer an example, Video Graphic Chips or VGCs as they are popularly known as, are particularly prone to solder joint breakage and need reballing. Every so often, you would have encountered a situation where your computer screen goes blank. This is often a result of poor solder joints and needs BGA reballing.

Why is BGA reballing needed?

There are several reasons that necessitate BGA reballing. Let us look at them in detail:

  • Overuse – The overuse of a graphics chip can often lead to reballing. With time, the solder joints between the PCB and the chip become loose and this could lead to issues that could progressively worsen.
  • Faulty Chips – When BGA chips become faulty, there is the need to replace them. Also, sometimes a PCB motherboard may require a chip upgrade to deal with new software.
  • Overheating – Overheating can also lead to the need for the BGA chip to be reballed. On account of the heat the ball loosens and can even be dislocated. Overheating can also result in the formation of a solder bridge that can prove to be fatal to your PCB equipment.

BGA Reballing Process

In order to effectively undertake the reballing process and for it to succeed, you need adequate experience and expertise and the right tools. Let us look at some of the tools that are needed for reballing:

Soldering Iron

A soldering iron is a hand-based tool that sends heat to the solder metal. Its melting can optimize flow into the broken joints between the component and the BGA PCB assembly. It is important for the soldering iron to have a heated metal tip as well as a well-insulated handle.

Desoldering Wire

A desoldering wire is required to solder wick or to desolder it. It is beneficial to remove the solder from the joint by soaking the metal solder in it. It is usually braided with 18 to 42 AWG copper wire that is insulated with leading-edge rosin flux.

Chip Stencil

A chip stencil is essentially a metal sheet with holes that allows solder balls to be fitted. Made of high-quality steel, you can heat it with the BGA machine or a hot air gun. It ensures that the ball soldering process is quick and hassle free.

Solder Balls

As the name suggests, these are small balls of solder strewn on the SMT board surface. Essentially, they offer a point of contact between the multichip modules and the stacked packages, as also between the PCB and chip package.

BGA Reworking Machine

It generates copious amounts of heat and is required to finalize the BGA reballing process. It also comes in handy to remove or attach BGA chips.

Steps in the BGA Reballing Process

The essential steps in BGA Reballing include:

  • Preparing the BGAs. This involves removing existing components and ensuring the surface is clean.
  • Securing the units.
  • Introducing the stencil to match the space and sizing of your BGA.
  • Securing the stencil by screwing a ring on top.
  • Shaking in solder balls.
  • Reflow soldering with a reflow oven that offers temperature control.
  • Post process inspection to see that the balls are secure and in proper place.

Choosing the right services for BGA reballing

It is imperative to choose the right PCB services when it comes to BGA component reballing as there is almost no margin for any error. You need to work with a company that has the right experience and expertise to offer accurate, high-quality work. You need to look for high yield, cost-effective BGA reballing services. The right company will be able to offer you the ability to reball BGA devices of every size, pitch and package style. From low volume to high volume BGA re-balling, the partner should be able to meet all your requirements.

The other aspect to look for is the ability of the company to offer robust customer support and to handhold you through state-of-the-art solutions.

Technotronix offers professional PCB assembly services with 40 years of expertise. Our accurate PCB assembly process meets the quality standards, including ISO-9001:2015, RoHS, and more. Our superior engineering capabilities mean that each board matches your exact requirements and technical specifications. If you have any questions or any requirements related to PCB assembly service, please feel free to contact us via email at sales@technotronix.us or call 714/630-9200.

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